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Scotts Bluff County has joined Gering in requesting the Federal Aviation Administration change its regulation that increases the number of flying hours pilots must have for commercial flights.
In 2013, the FAA increased the number of flight hours are required to fly larger aircraft from approximately 200 to 1,500. That has caused a shortage of pilots for smaller airlines.
“Pilots will usually come out of flight school with about 250 to 500 hours of flight time and they can go to work for a smaller airline,” said Darwin Skelton, Manager of the Western Nebraska Regional Airport. “With the increase to 1,500 hours, new commercial pilots can’t fly anymore.”
The House approved a bill on Monday to extend federal aviation funding, which is currently set to expire on Wednesday, until March 2016.
The measure, introduced on Friday by House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee Chairman Bill Shuster (R – Pa.), was approved by the lower chamber on a voice vote Monday afternoon in an effort to prevent an interruption in the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) funding midweek.
The quick House action follows an earlier Senate effort to attach the FAA funding extension to a bill to prevent a government shutdown on Oct. 1 that failed last week.
Aviation experts said such incidents present a clear safety concern that warrants more attention amid growing interest in unmanned aircraft systems, or drones. The Consumer Electronics Association, a technology trade group, expect unit sales of drones to approach 700,000 in 2015, a 63 percent increase over last year.
Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx threw cold water Wednesday, July 8, on a Republican plan to privatize large portions of the nation’s air traffic control system.
House Transportation Committee Chairman Bill Shuster (R-Pa.) is expected to call for the creation of a new non-governmental agency that would take over air traffic control from the Federal Aviation Administration in a forthcoming funding bill for the agency.
Foxx said Wednesday, during a meeting with reporters at the Transportation Department’s headquarters that he did not see the need to remove the federal government from the airplane navigation process.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and industry are working on a number of key initiatives to improve general aviation (GA) safety: the GA Joint Steering Committee (GAJSC), NextGen is now for general aviation, the Fly Safe outreach campaign on Loss of Control, and the angle of attack (AOA) policy, which is simplifying the design approval requirements for AOA indicators.
The United States has the largest and most diverse GA community in the world, with more than 220,000 aircraft, including amateur-built aircraft, rotorcraft, balloons, and highly sophisticated turbojets. Reducing GA fatalities is a top priority of the FAA and the FAA’s goal is to reduce the GA fatal accident rate by 10 percent over a 10-year period (2009-2018). Loss of control – mainly stalls – accounts for the largest number of GA fatal accidents.
The FAA is focused on reducing general aviation accidents by using a primarily non-regulatory, proactive, and data-driven strategy to get results, which is similar to the strategy the FAA uses in commercial aviation.
Reducing Risk The FAA and industry are working together to use data to identify risk, pinpoint trends through root cause analysis, and develop safety strategies The FAA and the GA community carry out this work through the General Aviation Joint Steering Committee (GAJSC).
Formed in the mid-1990s, the GAJSC recently has renewed its efforts to combat GA fatal accidents. The government and industry group uses the same approach as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST). It uses a data-driven, consensus-based approach to analyze safety data to develop specific interventions that will mitigate the root causes of accidents. Recent accomplishments include more than 25 safety enhancements, (such as training, procedures, and technology) to address loss of control. Examples include a new streamlined policy for angle of attack (AOA) system approvals and outreach to the GA community on loss of control topics. The GAJSC also is focusing on engine and other system failures, which can lead to accidents.
The GAJSC combines the expertise of many key decision makers across different parts of the FAA, several government agencies, and stakeholder groups. The other federal agencies are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), which participates as an observer. Industry participants include the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association, Experimental Aircraft Association, General Aviation Manufacturers Association, Light Aircraft Manufacturers Association, National Business Aviation Association, National Air Transportation Association, National Association of Flight Instructors, Society of Aviation and Flight Educators, and the aviation insurance industry.
Other achievements include several web-based resource guides, information on flying and medications, and overall GA community coordination on Loss of Control topics. Resource guides include the General Aviation Pilot’s Guide to (PDF)Preflight Weather Planning, Weather Self-Briefings, and Weather Decision Making, which provide advice to pilots on how to make safe weather flying decisions.
The GA community and the FAA are moving toward using de-identified GA operations data in the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) program to help identify risks before they become accidents. On March 31, 2014 the FAA announced the start of a one-year project to illustrate the value, capabilities, and benefits of the ASIAS program for the GA community. The project explores potential new information sources such as General Aviation Flight Data Monitoring, voluntary safety reports, manufacturer reports, and information collected from avionics using new common technologies such as iOS and Android personal electronic devices. The project’s team is reviewing the results and preparing a final report.
Data from these programs will be used for GA JSC initiatives and research conducted by the GA community. The GAJSC will work with the community to incorporate their data into ASIAS so that it may be used to identify risk.
Aircraft Design The FAA is working on a new performance-based regulatory approach to airworthiness standards for Part 23 airplanes. These airplanes range from small piston-powered airplanes to complex high-performance executive jets. The goal is to set a standard that improves safety, enables innovation, streamlines the certification process, and utilizes consensus standards to assist applicants in complying with the performance-based regulations. The agency’s effort addresses recommendations presented in 2013 by a 55-member rulemaking committee that included representatives from the FAA, European Aviation Safety Agency, National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil, Civil Aviation Administration of China, Transport Canada, Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand, several airplane and avionics manufacturers, and industry groups. The FAA is working to publish a notice of proposed rulemaking as quickly as possible.
On June 5, the FAA established a new policy effectively allowing vacuum-driven attitude indicators in small aircraft to be replaced with electronically-driven attitude indicators without the need of a standby attitude instrument. Older vacuum-driven attitude indicators are less reliable, often unavailable, and more expensive to maintain than electronically-driven indicators.
The FAA is also working with manufacturers to build stall resistance into aircraft designs through the use of improved aerodynamics, limited pitch control capability, and sensed angle of attack to better inform the pilot. This work has contributed to the production of autopilots that provide automatic limiting to help prevent loss of control incidents and accidents.
New Technology NextGen is using innovative technologies and procedures to make flying safer, greener, and more efficient. In March, the FAA achieved a major milestone by completing one of the largest automation changeovers in the history of the agency. We completed our new high altitude air traffic control system, known as En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM). This system will accommodate the technologies of NextGen, giving the U.S. a more powerful air traffic system.
The FAA is working with manufacturers to define equipage requirements and support NextGen by streamlining the certification and installation of NextGen technologies, uch as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). ADS-B enhances GA pilots’ awareness of other traffic and improves safety in areas that radar cannot reach, such as Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico. GA pilots can enjoy the subscription-free services and enhanced safety that come with the technology today. Pilots flying properly equipped aircraft can see graphical weather information on cockpit displays, where they are in relation to nearby aircraft, and flight information such as temporary flight restrictions.
The full benefits of ADS-B can only be realized if all of the planes that fly in controlled airspace are equipped. The FAA has set January 1 , 2020, as the deadline to equip for ADS-B Out in controlled airspace. The FAA is working closely with industry through the Equip 2020 working group. Increased competition has driven costs down considerably.
The FAA also is clarifying the role of data-link weather in GA operations and the use of portable equipment. Other efforts focus on icing “forecast and avoid” and “detect and escape.”
New technologies such as inflatable restraints, ballistic parachutes, weather in the cockpit, AOA indicators, and terrain avoidance equipment could significantly reduce GA fatalities.
Angle of Attack Indicators On February 5, 2014, the FAA took an important step to help improve safety in small aircraft by simplifying design and production approval requirements for an AOA indicator. AOA indicators provide the pilot with a visual aid to prevent loss of control of the aircraft in the critical phases of flight. Previously, cost and complexity of indicators limited their use to the military and commercial aircraft. Under new FAA guidelines, AOA devices can be added to small airplanes to supplement airspeed indicators and stall warning systems, giving pilots an additional tool to avoid a dangerous aerodynamic stall and subsequent loss of control.
The FAA continues to work to improve RVSM Letter of Authorization (LOA) process Since January 2005, Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) has allowed pilots to fly domestically with 1,000 feet of vertical separation rather than the previous 2,000 feet at cruising altitudes. On January 27, 2014, the FAA issued a policy that streamlined the process for granting approval to use RVSM. The FAA now considers previous operator and aircraft experience to determine the extent of the evaluation, reducing the amount of time it takes for operators to receive an authorization.
The FAA aims to make the authorization process more efficient with the recent Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) which would revise the FAA’s requirements for an application to operate in RVSM airspace. This proposal would eliminate the burden and expense of developing, processing, and approving RVSM maintenance programs. As a result, an applicant who plans to operate in RVSM airspace would no longer be required to develop and submit an RVSM maintenance program solely for the purpose of an RVSM authorization. Because of other, independent FAA airworthiness regulations, all aircraft operators would continue to be required to maintain RVSM equipment in an airworthy condition. The comment period closes on July 27, 2015.
Engagement & Outreach Fly Safe On June 6, FAA Deputy Administrator Mike Whitaker kicked off the Fly Safe campaign at the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association’s (AOPA) Fly-In at the Frederick Municipal Airport, Frederick, MD. The FAA and GA groups launched the Fly Safe national safety campaign to educate the GA community on how to prevent Loss of Control (LOC) accidents. An LOC accident involves an unintended departure of an aircraft from controlled flight. LOC can happen because the aircraft enters a flight regime that is outside its normal flight envelope and may quickly develop into a stall or spin. It can introduce an element of surprise for the pilot. LOC happens in all phases of flight. It can happen anywhere and at any time. There is one fatal accident involving LOC every four days. Join the campaign at #FlySafe and follow it on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.
Weather Most weather-related accidents are fatal and a failure to recognize deteriorating weather continues to be a frequent case or contributing factor of accidents. While the GAJSC has produced several safety enhancements related to weather as part of their work on loss of control in flight, the FAA and industry partners launched an eight-month national safety campaign in May 2014 titled, “Got Weather? to help general aviation (GA) pilots prepare for potential weather challenges. The Got Weather? campaign featured a monthly weather topic such as turbulence, thunderstorms, icing, crosswinds, and the resources available to pilots. Pilots were able to go to one user-friendly website to get fast facts about the topic and links to partner videos, safety seminars, quizzes, proficiency programs, online training, case studies, and more. The campaign reached approximately 4.5 million people.
Airman Testing Standards and Training To keep pace with advances in technology and educational training methods, the FAA chartered the Airman Testing Standards and Training Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) in September 2011 to engage stakeholders to recommend ways to improve the quality of general aviation airman knowledge, computer testing supplements, guides, practical test standards, and training handbooks. The ARC also considered how to develop test questions that incorporate expert input and review while balancing the need to safeguard test integrity.
To implement key ARC recommendations, the FAA tasked an Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) Working Group in August 2012 to develop integrated airman certification standards documents, guidance, and test materials for the private pilot and instructor certificates and instrument rating. The FAA also tasked this group to propose how to realign, streamline and consolidate existing FAA guidance material with each integrated Airman Certification Standards (ACS) documents and ensure that knowledge test item bank questions are consistent with both the ACS documents and the ARC’s recommendations. On September 30, 2013, the ARAC submitted the working group’s final report to the FAA with recommendations to improve airman training and testing by establishing an integrated, holistic airman certification system that clearly aligns testing with certification standards, guidance, and reference materials, and maintains that alignment. The group recommended steps the FAA should take to adopt the proposed ACS approach and its ongoing management. In January 2013, the FAA asked ARAC to establish an Airman Certification System Working Group to further advance ACS development work. This group is completing ACS drafts for the Authorized Instructor and Airline Transport Pilot certificates, prototyping use of the Private Pilot-Airplane and Instrument Rating-Airplane ACS documents in selected locations, and aligning handbooks with the knowledge, skill, and risk management tasks in the ACS. The FAA hopes to deploy the Private Pilot Airplane, Commercial Pilot Airplane, and Instrument Rating Airplane ACSs in early 2016.
Online Resources The FAASTeam’s website is a good resource for pilots to help improve their skills and knowledge. The site hosts the FAA WINGS pilot proficiency program. It also contains online pilot training materials and includes courses to help a pilot avoid the pitfalls of VFR flight into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Pilots, flight instructors, and mechanics are encouraged to register online.
Certificated Flight Instructors The FAA has been working with the flight instructor community to improve GA safety through improved flight instructor training, most notably recurrent training.
AviationUniversitiesand Experts Working through the Aviation Accreditation Board International (AABI) and the University Aviation Association (UAA), the FAA is partnering with the aviation academic community to leverage their expertise and develop best practices for improving flight training.
Ba ckground The General Aviation Accident Rate While the number of fatal general aviation accidents over the last decade has decreased, so have the estimated of total GA flight hours, likely due to economic factors.
From 2004 to 2009, fatal accidents from Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) have been reduced by approximately 50 percent.
However, the general aviation fatal accident rate appears to have remained relatively static based on the FAA’s flight hours estimates. The preliminary estimate for FY 2014 is a fatal accident rate of 1.09 with 251 GA fatal accidents with 434 fatalities. In 2013, the fatal accident rate was 1.11 fatal accidents per 100,000 hours, with 449 GA fatal accidents. In 2012, the fatal accident rate was 1.09 fatal accidents per 100,000 hours flown, with 267 GA fatal accidents. In 2011, the fatal accident rate was 1.12 fatal accidents per 100,000 hours flown, with 469 GA fatalities. In 2010, the fatal accident rate was 1.10 fatal accidents per 100,000 hours flown, with 272 GA fatal accidents.
Previous five-year GA fatal accident rates and numbers:
GA Fatal Accidents per 100,000 Hours
GA Fatal Accidents
The Top 10 Leading Causes of Fatal General Aviation Accidents 2001-2013:
Federal officials and the airline industry are holding private meetings to deal with the potentially huge problem of airline hacking.
It’s not just the public that’s terrified about hackers attacking airplanes.
The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration along with members of the airline industry are holding private meetings to discuss how to better protect airplanes—whether they be big Boeings or corporate jets—from hackers, according to a report in the Wall Street Journal.
The FAA has made significant progress in improving runway safety at U.S. airports over the past 15 years by working with other members of the aviation community on education, training, marking and lighting, standard runway safety areas, new technology and airfield improvements.
The FAA plans to build on that success by working with airport sponsors over the next 10-15 years to further reduce runway risks through risk-based decision-making. A new FAA national initiative known as the Runway Incursion Mitigation (RIM) program will identify airport risk factors that might contribute to a runway incursion and develop strategies to help airport sponsors mitigate those risks.
Runway incursions occur when an aircraft, vehicle, or person enters the protected area of an airport designated for aircraft landings and take offs. Risk factors that contribute to runway incursions may include unclear taxiway markings, airport signage, and more complex issues such as the runway or taxiway layout. Through RIM, the FAA will focus on reducing runway incursions by addressing risks at specific locations at the airport that have a history of runway incursions.
Risk-based decision-making builds on safety management principles by using a consistent approach to proactively address emerging safety risks. The FAA already has collected and reviewed data to identify specific airport areas with risk factors that could contribute to a runway incursion. The FAA has developed a preliminary inventory of airport locations where runway incursions have occurred. The FAA will work with the airport sponsors to develop strategies to mitigate runway incursions at these locations.
The FAA has kicked off the new initiative as it is wrapping up an extremely successful 15-year program to improve and standardize runway safety areas at the nation’s top commercial service airports.
The FAA is working with the commercial aviation and medical communities to study the emotional and mental health of U.S. commercial pilots.
The joint FAA and industry group known as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) recommended the study based on the recent Malaysia Flight 370 and Germanwings Flight 9525 accidents.
The Pilot Fitness Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) will provide the FAA with recommendations within six months. The group will include U.S. and international government and industry aviation experts, including a working group of medical professionals who specialize in aerospace medicine.
U.S. pilots undergo robust medical screening, but recent accidents in other parts of the world prompted the FAA to take a new look at the important issue of pilot fitness.
The ARC will examine issues including the awareness and reporting of emotional and mental health issues, the methods used to evaluate pilot emotional and mental health, and barriers to reporting such issues.
Based on the group’s recommendations, the FAA may consider changes to medical methods, aircraft design, policies and procedures, pilot training and testing, training for Aerospace Medical Examiners, or potential actions that may be taken by professional, airline, or union groups. The ARC’s meetings will not be open to the public.
Federal Aviation Regulations outline the medical requirements for pilots. U.S airline pilots undergo a medical exam with an FAA-approved physician every six or twelve months depending on the pilot’s age.
As lawmakers consider a major change to the current structure of the FAA as both a safety regulator and Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), representatives of commercial airlines and business aviation operators are divided on how to move forward. In a hearing before the Senate commerce committee on Tuesday, May 19, Ed Bolen, president of the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) strongly opposed the creation of a private entity responsible for Air Traffic Control (ATC) while Airlines for America (A4A) Chairman and United Airlines President and CEO Jeff Smisek expressed support for the change.
Smisek believes the FAA should retain its current role as a safety regulator, providing certification of airplanes and ensuring safety of air transportation operations. However, A4A — with the exception of member carrier Delta Airlines, which does not support a private ANSP — is asking lawmakers to consider separating the ATC operations and safety regulation functions of the FAA and to create a new user-fee funded non-profit corporation with an independent, multi-stakeholder board of governance free from political influence over decision-making.